Municipal solid waste is a complex heterogeneous mixture.

MSW currently consists of the following components:

Biological waste:

  • Bones
  • Food and vegetable waste (slops, garbage)
  • Pulp processing waste:
  • Paper-newspapers, magazines, packaging materials
  • Wood
  • Petroleum products:
  • Plastics
  • Textiles
  • Leather, rubber
  • Various metals (non-ferrous and ferrous)
  • Glass

The composition of MSW differs in different countries and cities. It depends on many factors, including the well-being of the population, the climate and landscaping. The composition of garbage is significantly affected by the collection system in the city of glass containers, waste paper, etc. It may change depending on the season and weather conditions. So in the autumn there is an increase in the amount of food waste, which is associated with a large consumption of vegetables and fruits in the diet. And in winter and spring, the content of small dropouts (street estimates) is reduced.

Separate collection, disposal and incineration of waste is used.

Separate collection of different categories of waste determines the efficiency and cost of disposal of individual components. The most inconvenient for disposal are mixed waste containing a mixture of biodegradable wet food waste, plastics, metals, glass, etc. components.

In developed countries in the XX century and later, waste disposal is often carried out not at spontaneous landfills, but at specially designed engineering facilities, landfills for the disposal of household waste. Landfill projects should provide for minimizing environmental damage, strict compliance with sanitary and hygienic requirements, etc.
In a number of developed countries, the method of recycling MSW by incineration with subsequent burial of the resulting ash at special landfills is widespread. For proper implementation, the method requires reaching very high temperatures for a certain time ("afterburning", for example, heating the outgoing gases to a temperature above 850 degrees and for two seconds or more).

Average waste generation, kg per person per year.

РЕГИОН

 

REGIÓN

СРЕДНЕЕ ЗНАЧЕНИЕ

VALOR MEDIO

МИН.

MIN

МАКС.

MAX

Восточная Азия и Тихий океан

 

Европа и Центральная Азия

 

Южная Азия

 

Северная Америка

 

Латинская Америка и Карибские острова

 

Южная Африка

 

Ближний Восток и Северная Африка

Asia Oriental y Pacífico

 

 

Europa y Asia Central

 

 

Asia Meridional

 

América del Norte

 

América Latina y el Caribe

 

 

 

Sudáfrica

 

 

Oriente Medio y África del Norte

204,4

430,7

189,8

806,65

361,35

167,9

295,65

51,1

98,55

62,05

708,1

149,65

40,15

160,6

1357,8

1624,25

525,6

1657,1

1627,9

573,05

667,95

 

Problem

Every year, the volume of global waste increases by 3%. About 40% of waste worldwide is disposed of by open incineration. Open incineration of waste and organic waste in landfills emit dioxins, furans, methane and black carbon into the atmosphere. Worldwide, approximately 40% of waste is incinerated in the open air. This problem is most acute in urbanized regions and developing countries.

Open burning of agricultural and / or municipal waste is practiced in 166 of the 193 countries of the world.

The main problem is a complex composition that requires careful sorting, since the components that make up the solid waste are processed using different technologies. This problem makes recycling expensive and unprofitable for most countries, which leads to the formation of huge landfills. Landfills of household waste serve as a source of food for synanthropic organisms that carry infection, primarily rats. Cans, bottles and other containers with organic residues can play the role of traps for wild animals and insects. 80% of the garbage is not recycled and causes environmental damage.

Another important problem is the microplastics formed as a result of the decomposition of plastic garbage in landfills. The term "microplastic" was first used in 2004 by marine biologist Richard Thompson, who named individual polymer particles ranging in size from a few nanometers to 5 mm. They are formed mainly as a result of partial disintegration or abrasion of plastic products: when car tires come into contact with the road, when plastic bags, bottles and packaging are exposed to sun and water, when clothing made of synthetic fabrics is worn out. Manufacturers of cosmetics and detergents are making a certain contribution to the spread of microplastics, increasingly replacing natural components with synthesized ones.

The smallest plastic particles that end up in landfills penetrate into the soil and groundwater. Even if they get into the sewers, they often successfully pass filters due to their small size and are sent to rivers, lakes and oceans.

Until recently, it was believed that plastic does not linger in the body of living beings and is freely excreted from it. However, in 2008, Australian ecotoxicologist Mark Brown discovered plastic fibers in the blood of a blue mussel. This study clearly showed the danger of plastic waste, which, according to scientists, make up about 80% of the garbage floating in the world's oceans.

The ingress of microplastics into the digestive system of living creatures can cause significant damage to their health. Most polymers are toxic by themselves or are able to absorb harmful substances. If the nanoparticles penetrate into the blood, they can cause more serious diseases. So far, experts do not have enough data to unequivocally state that there is a direct relationship between the increase in the number of oncological diseases and microplastics, but such assumptions are already being made.

Solución

Nuestro complejo de reciclaje de basura  es capaz de reciclar cualquier residuo orgánico y convertirlo en un gas de síntesis alto en calorías sin necesidad de separarlos. Solo será necesario separar los desechos inorgánicos de los orgánicos, lo que puede hacer cualquier persona sin problema. El complejo reducirá el número de vertederos, obteniendo de paso un gas sintético, que es un combustible prometedor para el transporte y los generadores de electricidad.

2022 © Geostram

Website development Создание сайтов