In its composition, precipitation contains organic and mineral components. Precipitation is distinguished by:
Raw sediments-formed in the process of primary sedimentation, clarification of waste water at the stage of mechanical treatment in primary settling tanks. They are basically a gelatinous viscous suspension with a large amount of organic substances that quickly undergo rotting and have a sharp, unpleasant putrid smell.
Secondary-sediments formed after biological treatment is an active sludge consisting of microorganisms and protozoa, carried out by the sewage stream after aeration tanks, these sediments are formed in secondary settling tanks. The structure of secondary precipitation is flaky, brown in color with a river smell.
A lot of pollutants pass from wastewater, as a result of treatment, into primary and secondary sediments, as a result of which the treatment, removal and disposal of sediments are a very difficult problem.
The sediments contain a large amount of organic, mineral substances and trace elements necessary for agriculture, but the untreated sediments contain a mass of microorganisms, mainly of fecal origin, many of which are pathogenic, representing a potential danger to humans.
There are various methods for processing sludge, but the sequence of processing to bring sludge to the possibility of disposal should be carried out according to the following scheme: initial sludge – stabilization – disinfection – dewatering – disposal.
Sediment stabilization is the most necessary stage in the treatment of precipitation. The stabilization process should ensure the neutralization, disinfection and stability of the sludge mass. There are several known methods of stabilization – anaerobic fermentation in methane tanks under anaerobic conditions, reagent, biothermal treatment, thermal conditioning of precipitation, combustion, aerobic stabilization.
Precipitation processing is an expensive process that requires modern equipment, so it is not available not only to individual enterprises, but also to countries with a low level of development and a weak economy.
All this leads to the release of precipitation into the environment, with the subsequent spread of infections, the destruction of natural ecosystems, and harm to human health.
Thus, the Indian Ganges River is heavily polluted, including sewage sludge. People drink from this river, wash in it, wash things, drain slops, and water transport runs along it. According to an ancient custom, the ashes left after cremation are sent down the river. The river serves as a source of water for 40% of the country's population, about half a billion people.
In order for the water to be suitable for drinking, the level of E. coli bacteria in it should be below 50, and if used in agriculture, then below 5000. In the Ganges, it is 5500! Because of this content of harmful substances, one of the leading diseases that cause children to die here is dysentery, cholera and severe diarrhea. Children bathing in the Ganges are regularly treated for water-borne diseases.
The proposed waste processing complex is able to process silt sludge into synth gas, while all pathogenic microflora contained in the sediments will be destroyed, and synth gas can be used for household needs.
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