It contains up to 6 % of the unburned substance and iron. Fly ash is formed when burning mineral impurities that are in the fuel. For different substances, its content is not the same. For example, in firewood, the content of fly ash is only 0.5-2 %, in fuel peat 2-30 %, and in brown and hard coal 1-45 %.
Ash is widely used in various spheres of life. This can be agriculture, industry, sanitary processing, construction. So fly ash is used in the production of certain types of concrete.
Granulated ash is used in road construction for the foundation of parking lots, solid waste storage areas, bicycle paths, embankments.
Dry entrainment fly ash is used to strengthen soils as an independent astringent and rapidly hardening substance. It can also be used for the construction of dams, dams and other hydraulic structures.
For the production of hydraulic concrete, ash is used as a substitute for cement (up to 25 %). As a filler (small and large), ash is included in the process in the production of cinder concrete and blocks used in the construction of walls.
It is widely used in the production of foam concrete.
The addition of ash to the foam concrete mixture increases its aggregate stability.
Ash is used in agriculture as potash fertilizers. They contain potassium in the form of potash, which is easily soluble in water and is available to plants. In addition, ash is rich in other useful substances: phosphorus, magnesium, sulfur, calcium, manganese, boron, micro - and macroelements. The presence of calcium carbonate allows the use of ash to reduce the acidity of soils. Ash can be applied to various crops in the garden after plowing, fertilize with it the trunk circles of trees and shrubs, as well as sprinkle meadows and pastures. The ash is used for sanitary treatment in the absence of water.
Ash is also used in places of sewage sludge.
From all of the above, it can be seen that fly ash is used in many areas, but despite this, landfills are formed everywhere in the world, where unused ash is stored. In the vast territories covered with ash, all living things are killed.
In the energy sector of the countries of the world community in 2010, about 800 million tons of coal combustion by-products were formed, the main of which are ash slags.
Approximately 60 million tons of ash and slag were produced in the European Union. To generate electricity, coal-fired thermal power plants in the eastern part of Europe burn more than 123 million tons of solid fuel, from which about 20 million tons of ash are formed. Ash dumps are growing, there are no incentives for companies to engage in recycling. As a result, this risks turning into an increase in the accumulation of ash and slag waste by a third, as well as an increase in the tariff burden on consumers of electric and thermal energy.
Also, ash and slag waste plantations are saturated with heavy metals and toxins that are dangerous to human health. A major environmental disaster occurred in London back in 1952. A dense toxic fog containing sulfur dioxide released into the atmosphere as a result of coal combustion has killed 12,000 people. This event was called the "Great Smog". Nowadays, it is difficult to imagine such a scale due to the proper cleaning of TPP emissions, but some of the toxins still remain in the ash, and in view of the large volumes of accumulation of this ash, it is no less a threat.
Fly ash is an ideal raw material for processing in the complex we offer. At the output, we will get high-calorie synthesis gas, suitable for heating, powering generators and cars. Enterprises that receive fly ash as waste will be able to process it into synthesis gas, and reduce the cost of heating and electricity supply.
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