Agricultural production in Eastern and Central Europe accounts for 250 million tons of waste in one year, of which about 100 million tons is crop production.

Crop production waste mainly consists of straw and tops from fields, leaves and branches of fruit trees, husks from the processing of finished products.

In countries located in southern latitudes, for example in Brazil, most of the waste is rice husks and nut shells. So, in the Republic of Myanmar, coconut palm plantations are about 83 thousand acres, on average, 70 palm trees per acre. During the season, from 6 to 12 fruits grow on one palm tree. One Indonesian or Malay coconut weighs about 2500 g., of which 1850 g. falls on the peel and 650 g. is coconut milk. It turns out that during the season in the Republic of Myanmar, about 94 thousand people are formed. tons of waste in the form of shells, of which only a few percent is recycled over the same period.

More than 60 countries are engaged in rice cultivation, while the annual volume of rice harvest is about 100 million tons. In this regard, the problem of using rice husks is acute for rice processing plants. During the processing of every 50 kg of raw rice, an average of 10 kg of rice husk accumulates. Thus, with an annual harvest of 1 million tons, 200 thousand tons of rice husk are formed. With a bulk mass of 140 kg / m3, this is 1.4 million m3. Even after burning the husk, 0.14 million m3 of ash is formed.

As can be seen from the above, such waste is not toxic and does not pose a great threat, but in view of their huge amount, they still require disposal.

A small part of such waste goes to feed livestock, while the bulk is either burned or stored until natural rotting.

Gorenje pollutes the air, therefore it requires special equipment for cleaning the combustion products, which is expensive and not affordable for small businesses. In addition, the incineration itself must take place at a sufficient distance from populated areas, which is often difficult, and delivery to the place of incineration requires additional costs.

Rotting is also not the best way out, because piles of waste will emit unpleasant odors for a long time. Under certain weather conditions, some types of waste, such as straw, can dry out rather than rot. Such piles of dry straw are dangerous for their fire hazard.

So, in the summer and autumn of 2018, a devastating fire took place in California. By November 18, it became known that at least 80 people had died, and another 1,000 were missing. More than 300 thousand people were forced to leave their homes. The fires caused huge economic damage, which is tentatively estimated at about $ 3 billion. The United States, and destroyed more than 10 thousand homes. In total, 101 people were killed, more than 22.7 thousand buildings were burned. Among the possible causes of the fire, there is also a deliberate arson of dried grass formed on agricultural land due to the dry summer.

In Australia, in 2019-2020, there was a fire that exceeded the average for the drought season. Since September 2019, 24 people have died in Australia, 6 are listed as missing. Estimates of the dead animals vary from 400 million to 1.25 billion individuals (including koalas), and this is only mammals, birds and reptiles, that is, not counting amphibians, insects and other invertebrates. About 200 residential buildings were also burned down. Thousands of people are forced to leave their homes. Since the beginning of the fires, according to experts, the fire has burned territories exceeding 20 million hectares.

As of January 5, 2020, as a result of fires, about 6.3 million hectares of forests (63,000 square kilometers) were burned, more than 2,500 buildings (including more than 1,300 residential buildings) were destroyed by fire, and 25 people were killed. Among the possible causes of the fire are frequent lightning strikes and deliberate arson, which led to the ignition of not only naturally formed dried grass, but also stored crop waste dried up by the drought season.

The method of solving the problem

The proposed waste processing complex is able to process any crop waste into high-calorie synthesis gas suitable for heating and generating electricity, which will allow the enterprise to significantly reduce costs. The recycling process is not accompanied by harmful emissions and unpleasant odors, and one of the main advantages of the complex is its mobility, which will allow it to be easily placed directly in the place of waste generation, thereby reducing the cost of their transportation.

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